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Minggu, 29 Oktober 2017

Intagible Cultural Heritage Bangunan Tradisi Minangkabu

Oleh
Nasbahry Couto

Abstrak
The Minangkabau cultural history is influenced by major cultures in generally such as Hinduism and Buddhism, Islam, and by Western or Dutch culture (Amran, Rusli., (1981), Navis, A.A, 1984; Nasbahry C, 1998). Thus both object culture and objectless culture are influenced by these great cultures. The intangible cultural Heritage from anismistic track of cultural and Hindu Buddhism that interpreted from the rules of the building, the way and the arrangement of buildings appear from Mount Merapi, as well as the naming of elements of the building (architecture), and the artifactsin the past culture. According to the study of the original minang tradition building is always stretched out toward the mountain (Syamsul Asri, 1996), four gonjong roofed as a four symbol or Minangkabau cosmology). Likewisethe names of building elements and building frame.
The intangible cultural heritage can also be investigated from words and languages that used for naming elements or parts of buildings. it also from the cull of belief, fairy tales, and minangkabau myths at the past that can be read from the arrangement of carvings on the building of Minangkabautradition.Thus, to examine the intangible cultural heritage aspects of traditional buildings, this study can be approached through semiotics (science of signs) or through the study of cosmology (Bakker, Anton.1995) on Minangkabau tradition culture. The Intangible Cultural Heritage study consist of: (1) oral tradition and expression, including language as a vehicle of intangible cultural heritage; (2) performing arts; (3) social practices, rituals and festival events; (4) knowledge and practice of nature and the universe; (5) traditional skills (Unesco, 2003). That is, "The heritage of intangible cultural heritage ispractices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills - as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces linked to them.
Keywords: intangible cultural heritage, minangkabau, languange, traditional building

Research Area Building Minangkabau Tradition

Many theories explain that a primordial society building should be simple and not complex or complex (Snyder, 1984, Roxana Waterson, Holt, 1967) and so on. Based on that and the results of research can be obtained the basic form of Minangkabau tradition building. According to Darwis (1978), Usman, (1985), Couto (1998), Asri (2002) is a rectangular shape, built by the arrangement of poles. The results of several authors' research show the same tendency that the original form of the building has five spaces, four rectangles, and consists of 30 poles. This form of lay out is a thesis about minangkabau tradtion come from because both of the technology building, form, and naming have similarities prediction in every Minangkabau nagari (especially in luhak nan tigo). The difference is in the outer shell of the building (enclosure), especially the form of roof and body building.
In my research for thesis at ITB Bandung, which was carried out in the year 1996-1999, it is a semiotic study on Minangkabau tradition building in Sehiliran Batang Bengkaweh in Tanah Datar regency, West Sumatrea. Because it is considered as the first "place" of Minangkabau culture which was developedbefore spread to other regions (Dirajo Sangguno, 1955; Amran, Rusli., 1981, Asri, Syamsul, 1996). it also considered to be as the oldest nagari that assumption of first capibility formation in minangkabau culture by Datuk Parpatih nan Sabatang and Datuk.

From Asri’s research, Syamsul, 1996, it is show that Culture has to relation with tradition and custom thatdoing repeatedly from behavior because it does not have unwritten rule. The expert of Minang culture agree that it is come from luhak nan tigo (now Tanah Tanah Regency, Agam and 50 Kota), others called rantau. Because the unwritten rules are also divided according to the customs that can not be changed (the truecustoms) andmay be changed (customs). The visual culture belongs to this category as "the custom of mutual nagari"
For example where is the tradition and what has been changed in another nagari in West Sumatra, how the orientation, which form of origin and which form of influence and have been developed. This idea make an analyze about the form of the origin of residential space or building Minangkabau traditionto find the morphology of the building form, including the shape of the building plan.
Figure 1. The Original Building Plan of Minangkabau Tradition (Couto, 1998, Asri 2002,)

Note: Description of the original building, (Couto, 1998, Asri, 2002)
(1) Custom house body is rectangular
(2) The roof is shaped and the shape of the triangle roof from the side
(3) Columns or poles, arranged in a row, one jejer 5 piles, for
         one building with 5 spaces required 30 piles;
(4) Floor 4 (blik, bandua, labuah, hall)
(5) Wooden front wall, back wall with bamboo interwoven
(6) The window called "door"
(7) The entrance does not use the stairs

The building Arrangement of Minangkabau Myth and Cosmology

The interpretation of the visual culture of the Minangkabau tradition, whether in the semiotic study or in cosmology study must be in appropriate with the meaning-giver, therefore the Minangkabau cosmology study consists of three groups of interpreters (Geertz, Clifford, 1992, Bakker, Anton.1995)
1. Cosmology animism (before the Hindu era)
2. Cosmology in the era of Hindu Buddhist influence
3. Cosmology in the post-Hindu Buddhist era
1. Cosmology animism (before the Hindu era)
For example where is the tradition and what has been changed in another nagari in West Sumatra, how the orientation, which form of origin and which form of influence and have been developed. This idea make an analyze about the form of the origin of residential space or building Minangkabau traditionto find the morphology of the building form, including the shape of the building plan.

Picture. 2. The composition of stone seats for indigenous deliberations leads to Mount Merapi. This stone sitting arrangement can still be found in the grave "Tantejo Gurhano" in nagari Pariangan, Tanah Datar regency of West Sumatra. Nasbahry Couto.1998

As we known, the composition of people sitting on the inside of the building Minangkabau tradition, if there is a traditional ceremony is like the picture below. The arrangement of the sitting is always facing Mount Merapi, as a tribute to the mountain. According to ancient animistic beliefs, the mountain is the home of the ancestorswho deserve respect. (Figure 2). The arrangement of stones can be compared to the composition of the pamphlets at traditional ceremonies in the usual gadang house (Figure 3) ([1])





A classic theory that underlies the formation of a building plan such as picture (1) that is to perform a traditional ceremony is on the area / front of the building chamber called lanjar hall, labuah, bandua. From the research revealed, that at first musyawarah it was done outside the building.

The structure of the delegates is similar to that of the stone. The form and composition of the deliberate people found in the Narivah gardens of Pariangan or some nagari in Minangkabau, show similarities with the arrangement of the stone. As shown in the following figure: (result of interview with tukang tuo, field analysis, 1980, Syamsul Asri).

2. Cosmology in the era of Hindu Buddhist

As is known, Hindu is a "polytheism", that the universe is dominated by the gods. Like the god Brahma, Vishnu and Ciwa. It was influence Javanese culture and also Minang Culture that called by Hasta brata.
The latest literature that can be seen from the writings of Pardi Suratno entitled "The Leader according to Asthabrata, Wulang Reh, Tripama, Dasa Darma Raja".[1] In the ancient Javanese cultural treasures, there are at least four philosophical teachings of leadership. The four teachings are; Science Hasta Brata, Wulang Reh, Tripama, and Dasa Darma Raja. An in-depth review of the four teachings can be read, among others, in a book written by Pardi Suratno. Of the four teachings, Hasta Brata is the most complete (relative) and also affect Minangkabau culture of the past.According to Suratno (2006) Hasthabrata concept appears in the story of Javanese puppet with the play 'Iwahyu Makutharama' which tells about the giving of a Pandita named Wiswamitra addressed to Sri Rama who will be crowned king replace his father.
The prince always guides dhasthabrata precept to referable fatwa that crowned the king of java.  Hasthabrata consists of the word hastha meaning Eight and brata which means Good. In some literature also mentioned that these eight behavior of nature represent symbols of wisdom and greatness of the Creator, namely; the nature of the Earth, the nature of the Sun, the nature of the Moon, the nature of the Ocean, the nature of the Stars, the nature of the Wind, the Nature of Fire, and the nature of Water.



[1] Look at http://thefilosofi.blogspot.co.id/2014/06/8-sifat-unggul-pemimpin-menurut.html

Picture. 4 The application of Minangkabau cosmology, regardless of the amount of space (5,7,9, dst 20), gonjongnya remain four, source:  Nasbahry Couto.1998

The nature of minangkabau culture is contained from the "hastabrata" (eight traits of leadership) derived from the eight traits of nature or represented by the eight gods. Before islam enter the politeism of minang, the nature was dominated by human-like personification. So it can be concluded, this co-concept is vaguely influenced by the ancient Hindu-Javanese concept. The proof of this can be seen in the traditional (original) minangkabau speech always beginning with the following utterance: "samulo alam tabagi salapan, duo pai ka utara (China), duo pai ka salatan (Java?)", Then nature is lived four. If the minang people do not know "nan ampek" then he is not minang people, as follows: kato nan ampek, nagari nan ampek suku and so on.

Figure 5. Implementation of the hastabrata concept on the naming of the minangkabau tradition minaret, four important pillars and represents the element of water, soil, wind and fire.Source Nasbahry Couto.1998

Someone is said to be not a Minang person if he does not recognize the "four," such as the four words (word decreased = the way of talking to the smaller child usually in the buah gadang, climbing words = the way to talk to the bigger person, also in the gadang house or traditional house, horizontal word = speech with people who are regarded as equal in the community, malereang = speaking indirectly or by way of biology, the latter is commonly done in customary meetings (customary speech) conducted to outsiders of the community in a common preoccupation of this latter way of communicating while communicating with other tribes outside the Minangkabau region, which are sometimes considered negative by other tribes, because the other is meant by the speaker, other than the sipendengar means. all Minang people can speak in this way.

Interpretation of carved arrangement

structure and meaning of reading in house carvings
Previous studies have generally interpreted meaning or symbol carving on minangkabau tradition buildings separately. For example carving kaluak paku given a certain meaning.
One of findings in this study is an attempt to read the meaning in the context of the structure in house carved signs. The existence of the sign structure is (syntactic) while the engraving is considered as (text). The structure of this sign is visible on the wall but, the building of Rumah Adat, in Surau-surau Tribe in the research area. After the comparison was also found in Luhak Agam, and Luhak Limo Puluah Koto. The pattern is as shown in Fig. 3 A) and 3 B)

Figure 6. The structure of carving and its visual pattern in Carambola. 3..A) the first pattern, 3.6.B) the second pattern. Source  Nasbahry Couto,1998Description: 1) Saluak Laka, 2) Saik Ajik, 3) Pucuak Rabuang, 4) Salimpat, 5) Lapiah Tigo. Meaning: 1) Pucuak Rabuang = be a useful human being, 2) Saik Ajik = be careful, 3) Saluak Laka = cooperate, 4) the leader or adat leader, 5) the three elements of leadership in the community (clever, and indigenous peoples), the similarities between 3A and 3B are different) are the elements 4) and 5) but the meaning is the same.Source Nasbahry Couto.1998

If it reads the same meaning that is: Be useful human beings, work together, remember the position of penghulu in society. (Source.Nasbahry Couto.Et.al. 1988)

Picture, 7. Structure of index code and social symbol at Rumah Gadang, Source Nasbahry Couto.1998

Figure 8. The engraving structure on the part of the wall but and similar in the carpet placement, on the bottom is always placed salimpat carvings. Source Couto.1998The nomenclatur for exterior tradition building
To investigate the nomenclature of Minangkabau traditions, the writer tries to compile the words (minangkabau language) that related with visual cultural elements of the Minangkabau tradition, especially from the customary speech of "building erection", from Manan's book A.R.P., ST. Mahmoed BA 1978. Minangkabau Tambo Association and Historical Evidence (monograph, unpublished). Traditional speech is usually held or presented during the building ceremony Minangkabau ancient buildings, then obtained a number of words that are suspected to be associated with elements of Minangkabau tradition building. After all the words of customary speech related to the visual culture is obtained then checked into the field in the research area with the intent of all the data in the match with the reality of the field, this is then obtained among glossary words on the outside of Minangkabau tradition building as the following (Figure 9):[1]




The Importance of Tradition Knowledge

The forms and elements of the architect are actually filled with possibilities and choices. If there have more choices, the visual elements are not accidental, but something deliberate comes from human intentions about something and meaningful. These forms are not merely a pragmatic creation, but represent reception (acceptance) and agreement (convention). The theory convention proposed by Hauser (1982) in his book entitled "The Sociology of Art". While the study of the meaning of the visual and verbal elements of the building and other comparators, which in reality is done by the community repeatedly can be interpreted as a collective unconscious (social-unconciousness), this can be interpreted also as Minangkabau cosmology. The importance of tradition knowledge is as identity of nation and ethnicity. Identity will be lost and carried away the flow of global culture by the community.
The visual elements of the building, can be projected to the attitude of life and culture Minangkabau, such as mythology, beliefs and so forth. For example, the tripartite concept begins with Lareh Nan Panjang as mediator in the conflict of Bodi Caniago and Koto Piliang. This perception can be attributed to the formation of a three-party or tripartite order as a tango of sanctuary in the era of Islamization in Minangkabau. The similarities in the above tradition building have long been foreign, as we see foreigners using their language. That is intangible cultural heritage that is connected to knowledge about tradition, especially visual culture.

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